Calibration and Measurement Wizard

Start the Cal and Measurement Wizard using any of the following methods:

> Click

> Click File, then New, select New Measurement, then click Next >

> Click Tools, then Launch Startup Wizard

  1. Welcome Select New Measurement (separate topic)

  2. Hardware Detection Summary (separate topic)

  3. Setup Hardware

  4. Define Calibration Settings

  5. Calibrate Hardware

  6. Save CalSet

  7. Continuity Check

  8. Measure DUT

  9. Choose Analysis Type

When you click Load existing calibration data on the Hardware Auto-Detection Summary dialog, the following dialog is presented:

Calibration Selection dialog

Select a Cal Set that is currently stored on the PNA, then click OK.

Note: A Cal Set must contain at least 11 data points to be usable in PLTS.


When you click Perform a new calibration on the Hardware Auto-Detection Summary dialog, the following dialogs are presented:

Setup Hardware dialog box

Modifying these values also modifies other associated values interactively. For example, when you change the # of Points entry, the Time Base and the Frequency Start entries change appropriately.

When finished with this dialog, click Next to see the next Cal Wizard page.

Time Domain settings

Time Base - Sets the maximum time base (in ns). Time base calculated as: 1/(2*Start Freq).

Step Rise Time - Sets the transition time (in ps) of the stimulus signal rising from 10 to 90% of the maximum signal amplitude.

Spatial Resolution - Describes how close in time two responses can be distinguished. This depends on the width of the impulse response, which is inversely related to the maximum frequency of the measurement. Learn more.

  • Reflection (one-way) - The above parameters reflect only forward measurements.

  • Transmission - The above parameters are doubled to account for a 'round-trip' (forward and reverse)

Frequency Domain settings

Frequency Start - Sets the start frequency of the sweep. If the LFE (Low Frequency Extension) option is installed on the PNA, the frequency can be extended down to 900 Hz. With LFE installed, if the start frequency is set below 10 MHz, the LFE check box is automatically checked.

Frequency Stop - Sets the stop frequency of the sweep.

Frequency Step - Sets the step size between points. This value is normally locked to (is the same as) the Frequency Start value.

Number of Points  -  Sets the number of measured points per sweep.

Note: PLTS requires at least 11 data points. This limitation also exists when loading Cal Sets.


Advanced Settings

LFE - If the LFE (Low Frequency Extension) option is installed on the PNA, the frequency can be extended down to 900 Hz by checking this box. With LFE installed, if the start frequency is set below 10 MHz, the LFE check box is automatically checked.

Uncouple Start Frequency and Step Frequency

By default, the Frequency Step setting is coupled to the Frequency Start setting.

Uncouple the Frequency Step setting from the Frequency Start setting if you want to measure more points for better measurement resolution or you may want to measure specific frequency points that would not ordinarily be measured.

When measured data from this uncoupled start frequency/step frequency measurement is converted to the Time Domain or Eye Diagram analysis type, PLTS may change the data to ensure the data is displayed correctly. When the data is changed, one of following icons is displayed in the lower right corner of the plot.


 Icon Name

Resampled Data - This icon indicates that only the harmonically-related data points were used to generate time domain data.

Interpolated Data - This icon indicates interpolation is performed to calculate the harmonically-related points that were not measured. Any measurements that were performed at harmonically-related points are left unchanged. The interpolated data is used, along with the measured harmonically-related data, to perform the Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT) for the calculated time domain data.

Bad Data - This icon indicates there are less than 10 harmonically-related data points in the measured data. In this case, all of the non harmonically-related data is used to perform the Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT) to calculate time domain data. This may result in inaccurate time domain data.

Reset Values  Returns all values to the default settings.

Basic / Advanced - toggle between showing all settings (Advanced) or showing only the Basic settings.


Velocity Factor - The numerical value related to the speed of energy through a DUT based on the DUTs dielectric material. Some velocity factor (Vf) examples are: Air Vf = 1.000, Surface traces Vf = 0.53146, Buried Traces in er ~ 4.3: Vf = 0.48795

Dielectric Constant  - (er) is used to calculate the velocity factor

Spatial Resolution (cm) = Max DUT Length(m) / Number of Points

Response Resolution (cm) = Step Rise Time(ps) * Dielectric Const * Speed of Light


IF Bandwidth - Narrower (smaller) IF bandwidths lower the noise floor so that low-level signals can be viewed, but slows the measurement time.

Power - Sets the signal level of the appropriate source. Power can be entered in dBm or in Volts (peak-to-peak) into a 50 ohm load.

Averaging  - Each data point of consecutively swept traces is mathematically averaged until the total number of sweeps is equal to the averaging factor. This effectively lowers the noise floor, but also slows the measurement time.

Max DUT Length(m) = Time Base * Dielectric Const *Speed of Light

Sweep Setup

Stepped - Measures data while the source steps from point to point.

Swept - Measures data while the source sweeps linearly and continuously across the frequency range.

Sweep Type

Linear Frequency  Sets a linear frequency sweep that is displayed on a standard grid with ten equal horizontal divisions.

Log Frequency  (Frequency domain ONLY) The source is stepped in logarithmic increments and the data is displayed on a logarithmic x-axis. This is usually slower than a linear sweep with the same number of points.

Log sweep is selected automatically when you load a Cal Set that was measured in log sweep.

You can set a User Preference to default to Log Sweep for all Frequency domain measurements.


Setup HOT S22 - Click to start the Hot S22 dialog box.



Define Calibration Settings dialog

These selections are best made in the specified order.

This dialog assumes that ALL DUT ports shown are to be calibrated. If necessary, modify the DUT configuration by restarting the Cal Wizard.

1. Select Calibration Type  

A different calibration type can be performed on each test port. Learn about these cal types: SOLT, TRL/LRM, ECal.

2. Select DUT Connector Type: (not the test port or adapter connector type).

Edit Connector List  Filter the number and types of Cal Kits that appear in the Connector Type list. Learn more.

Set Probe Config  Launches the Create Probe Cal Kit dialog (separate topic).

3. Select Cal Kit:

These are the Cal Kits that are in the PNA that match the specified connector type. To use Cal Kits that you have previously created using PLTS:

  1. Click Cancel on this dialog box.

  2. On the PLTS menu, click Utilities, then point to your system name, then click Edit Cal Kits.

  3. In the Select Cal Kit dialog, select the Cal Kit, then click Export to PNA.

  4. The selected PLTS Cal Kit is downloaded to the PNA and is now available for calibrations in the PNA or with PLTS in Full PNA Cal Mode.

4. Click buttons next to each port...

Settings 1,2, and 3 above are applied to each port button, or click Apply to All Ports. When all ports have settings applied, the Next> button becomes available.

5. Modify 'Thru'... <Optional> Click to start the Modify Thru dialog.

6. Select a Cal Step Grouping  <Optional> Select a Cal Step Grouping to use with the current calibration. <none> (default setting) will prompt for each cal standard connection. Learn all about Cal Step Grouping.

Create / Edit Groups  Click to start the Create / Edit Cal Step Groups dialog.


Edit / Group Connector List dialog

To show this dialog, click Edit List on the Define Calibration Settings dialog.  

This dialog has two purposes:

  1. Allows you to limit the number of connectors that appear in the Define Calibration Settings dialog.

  2. Allows you to create groups of similar connector types.  Because the PNA allows you to create new connector types using custom names, it is possible to have multiple names that describe the same connector. For example APC_3.5, APC 3.5, APC 3.5 male, 3.5 mm male all describe the same connector.

Connector Grouping

Choose Connectors and Groups of connectors to show in the Connector Type field of the Define Calibration Settings dialog.  Select connector types for your DUTs. Once selected, these settings remain until you change them.

Connectors  Check the connectors to show in the Connector Type field of the Define Calibration Settings dialog.

Groups  Check Connector Groups that you have created to show in the Connector Type field of the Define Calibration Settings dialog.

Connector Grouping

To add a new group:

  1. In the Add a New Group box, enter a new group name, then click Add.

  2. Select one or more connectors from the Available Connectors list, then click >> to add them to this group. You can also double-click the available connectors to move them to the Connectors in Group list.

  3. Click Save Group to save this group.

  4. The new group is also added to the Groups list and checked by default.

To modify a group, select the group and make the required changes. Then click Save Group.

To delete a group, select the group from the Groups area, then click Delete Group.


Create / Edit Cal Step Groups dialog

To see this dialog, click Edit Groups on the Define Calibration Settings dialog.


Group  Two or more calibration steps that are configured to be performed with one calibration prompt.  For example, a group named ‘Open’ could be configured to measure the open standards for all ports in a single step. The cal prompt would read something like: 'Connect Open standards to all ports'. When Measure is pressed, the Open standards are measured for all ports.

Grouping  A collection of Groups that match a specific calibration setup. For example, a TRL calibration may use a grouping that contains three Groups named: ‘THRU’, ‘OpenReflect’, and ‘Line1’.  This grouping may be defined and saved for subsequent calibrations that contain the same connector type, cal kit, and Thru methods.

Create / Edit Groupings

Select  Choose a grouping to edit. The groupings that are listed all match the Connector Type, Cal Kit, and Thru methods of the current calibration.

New  Click to create a new grouping. A dialog box appears which allows you to type a name for the new grouping.

Delete  Click to delete the selected grouping.

Save  Click to save the changes that you just made to the selected grouping. This includes all changes that are made to individual groups in the grouping collection.

Grouping Details

Add a new group  Enter a name for the new group, then click Add.

Select a Group to Modify  Lists the names of existing groups in the selected Grouping. The order in which the groups appear is the order in which the Cal Steps will be performed.

Move Up / Down /Delete  Use buttons to change the order in which the Cal Steps will be performed.

Group Description  Type a description that will appear as a prompt when calibrating.

Group Picture  Click Browse, then navigate to a picture that will appear as an aid when the calibration step is selected.

Note: To add a picture for each cal step (without grouping) use only ONE step for each group.

Filter  Check the standard connection prompts to appear in the Available Cal Steps area.

Available Cal Steps > Cal Steps in Group

During the calibration, all of the connection steps that are listed in the Cal Steps in Group column will be measured, in order, with one prompt when the group is selected.

Click  >  to move individual prompts from the Available Cal Steps to the Cal Steps in Group to create the group of connections.

Click  >>  to move all prompts from the Available Cal Steps to the Cal Steps in Group column.

Close  Closes dialog without saving changes.  Click Save at the top of dialog to save all changes to the Groups and Grouping BEFORE closing.


Modify Thru dialog

To see this dialog, click Modify Thrus on the Define Calibration Settings dialog.

Thru #n  Lists the proposed Thru connections to be made during the calibration process. You can change these Thru connections to better suit your test setup.  Additional Thru connections can be selected for higher accuracy.

Add Thru  Click to add a Thru connection.

Remove Thru  Select a Thru by clicking the "1st Port / 2nd Port" field or the Thru Cal Method. Then click "Remove Thru". This selection is NOT available if the selected Thru is required for the calibration.

1st Port / 2nd Port (Red Box)  Click to select the two ports to be included in the Thru connection. The order of the port numbers is not critical.

Thru Cal Method (Blue box)  Lists the available Thru Cal methods for the specified port pairs.

  • For Flush (or Zero length) Thru, select Unknown Thru.

  • Unknown Thru requires that a Global Delta Match Cal already be resident on the PNA.  See the PNAHelp file to learn more about Delta Match Cal.

Individual Thru Methods  Check to allow separate Thru Cal Methods for each port.  Clear to have the same Thru Cal Method on all ports. This feature requires PNA Rev. A.06.20 or higher.

QSOLT Cal Type (Quick SOLT)


  • ALL Thru Cal Methods must be set to Defined Thru.

  • A Global Delta Match Cal must already be resident on the PNA.  See the PNAHelp file to learn more about Delta Match Cal.


  • QSOLT is used to quickly calibrate any number of ports.

  • Reflection Standards (OPEN, SHORT, LOAD) are connected to only the selected reference port.

  • Defined THRU or Flush THRU standards are connected from the reference port to the remaining ports.

  • Much quicker than SOLT when using a mechanical cal kit.

  • Based on TRL math.

  • Accuracy is not as high as SOLT.

The following selections appear on this dialog when all Thru Cal methods are Defined Thru.

Use QSOLT  Check to perform QSOLT calibration on ALL ports.

Select Reference Port  Select the port to which reflection cal standards will be connected.



Calibrate Hardware dialog

Note: The picture that appears to the right of the Cal steps in the above image is added in the Cal Step Grouping feature. Pictures can be added without grouping Cal Steps.

Click buttons to measure standards

  • Red button - click to make it Blue.

  • Blue button - click to measure that standard.

  • Green button - Measured. Click to re-measure.

Calibration Status

Shows the remaining steps to complete the calibration. As each standard is measured, the first number decrements.

Enable Refresh Cal

Check to save the measurements of the cal standards to a separate file. By doing this, individual steps can be remeasured after the Cal Set has been saved. This will cause large files to be saved to your PC. Learn more about Refresh Cal.

Cal Steps in List View

Check to cause the calibration steps to show the prompt next to the button.

Reflection Standards List:

Shows all reflection standards and ports required for calibration.




ECal, Thru, Line List

Shows all Thru connections that were specified for calibration.

< Back  Return to the Calibration Kit dialog

Next >  Becomes available when all standards are measured.

PNA Cal Window

The Cal Window allows you to monitor a measurement window while cal standards are connected. The Cal Window feature is invoked when both of the following conditions are true:

  • PNA revision A.07.50.27 or later

  • PLTS revision 4.5 or later

Learn more about the Cal Window in the PNA Help file.



Save Calset dialog

1. Enter Cal Set Name  Type the name of the new Cal Set for the calibration that was just performed. This Cal Set can be later recalled to save time calibrating.

Note: Calibrations become 'stale' over time as hardware drifts. For highest accuracy, recalibrate the hardware every several days.


When Refresh Cal is enabled in the Calibrate Hardware dialog, then step 2 is visible.

2. Enter cal raw data file name:  This is where the raw cal data is saved so that it can be later recalled and viewed using Load Error Terms dialog.

If performing a Mixed Mode Cal, the wizard continues at Differential Crosstalk Cal.



Connect DUT  dialog

This dialog allows you to test the connection of the DUT before making a measurement.  The following Measure DUT page makes the actual measurement.

Continuity Check   helps to ensure that connections to the DUT are secure. Select the parameters that you want to check, and click Criteria to enter the Pass/Fail criteria for each parameter. These settings can be saved, and later recalled for use in subsequent measurements.

Reflection, Transmission, Customize   Check each box to list the parameters that are available for testing to the specified criteria. Click each parameter (in the highlighted area above) to select for testing. The BOLD parameters are selected.

Pass/Fail indicator (Green box in red ring above)  

  • Green = Selected parameters pass the specified criteria.

  • Red = Selected parameters FAIL the specified criteria.

Criteria   Click to launch the Continuity Check Criteria dialog.

Trigger Checking  

  • Continuous - measurements are made continuously while the selected parameters are tested.

  • Single - one measurement is made when the Single button is pressed and the selected parameters are tested.

Click Next> when the DUT is connected to your satisfaction.


Continuity Check Criteria dialog

This dialog sets the Pass/Fail criteria for the Continuity Check.

Select   Choose an existing criteria. If only 'default' exists, click New to create new criteria settings.

New  Click to launch the Input New Name dialog. Type a name for the new criteria settings.  The name of the settings in the above image is "Reflection".

Delete  Removes the selected Criteria settings.

Rename  Allows you to rename the selected Criteria through the Input New Name dialog.

Save  Saves the current settings to the selected Criteria.

OK  Close the dialog.


Measure DUT dialog

  1. Optionally check Change Measure Settings, then change Averaging or IF Bandwidth value.

  2. Click Measure to begin the measurement.

  3. The estimated time to finish the measurement is displayed.

  4. Click Abort to stop the measurement.

  5. After the measurement is finished, click Next to Select Analysis View.



Select Analysis View dialog

Select the Analysis View type that will be used to display data. This can be changed at any time.  Learn how.

Show template views only  When checked, only template views are displayed. When cleared, both templates and standard Analysis Views are displayed. Learn about a specific Analysis View.

Create New  Create a new template. Learn more.

Last Modified:


Added new Measure DUT dialog/IF Bandwidth setting


Added template views


Added new wizard


Added Edit/Group connectors