Start the Cal and Measurement Wizard using any of the following methods:
> Click File, then New, select New Measurement, then click Next >
> Click Tools, then Launch Startup Wizard
Welcome Select New Measurement (separate topic)
Hardware Detection Summary (separate topic)
Define Calibration Settings
Choose Analysis Type
When you click Load existing calibration data on the Hardware Auto-Detection Summary dialog, the following dialog is presented:
Calibration Selection dialog
Select a Cal Set that is currently stored on the PNA, then click OK.
Note: A Cal Set must contain at least 11 data points to be usable in PLTS.
When you click Perform a new calibration on the Hardware Auto-Detection Summary dialog, the following dialogs are presented:
Modifying these values also modifies other associated values interactively. For example, when you change the # of Points entry, the Time Base and the Frequency Start entries change appropriately.
When finished with this dialog, click Next to see the next Cal Wizard page.
Time Domain settings
Time Base - Sets the maximum time base (in ns). Time base calculated as: 1/(2*Start Freq).
Step Rise Time - Sets the transition time (in ps) of the stimulus signal rising from 10 to 90% of the maximum signal amplitude.
Spatial Resolution - Describes how close in time two responses can be distinguished. This depends on the width of the impulse response, which is inversely related to the maximum frequency of the measurement. Learn more.
Frequency Domain settings
Frequency Start - Sets the start frequency of the sweep. If the LFE (Low Frequency Extension) option is installed on the PNA, the frequency can be extended down to 900 Hz. With LFE installed, if the start frequency is set below 10 MHz, the LFE check box is automatically checked.
Frequency Stop - Sets the stop frequency of the sweep.
Frequency Step - Sets the step size between points. This value is normally locked to (is the same as) the Frequency Start value.
Number of Points - Sets the number of measured points per sweep.
Note: PLTS requires at least 11 data points. This limitation also exists when loading Cal Sets.
LFE - If the LFE (Low Frequency Extension) option is installed on the PNA, the frequency can be extended down to 900 Hz by checking this box. With LFE installed, if the start frequency is set below 10 MHz, the LFE check box is automatically checked.
Uncouple Start Frequency and Step Frequency
By default, the Frequency Step setting is coupled to the Frequency Start setting.
Uncouple the Frequency Step setting from the Frequency Start setting if you want to measure more points for better measurement resolution or you may want to measure specific frequency points that would not ordinarily be measured.
When measured data from this uncoupled start frequency/step frequency measurement is converted to the Time Domain or Eye Diagram analysis type, PLTS may change the data to ensure the data is displayed correctly. When the data is changed, one of following icons is displayed in the lower right corner of the plot.
Reset Values Returns all values to the default settings.
Basic / Advanced - toggle between showing all settings (Advanced) or showing only the Basic settings.
Velocity Factor - The numerical value related to the speed of energy through a DUT based on the DUTs dielectric material. Some velocity factor (Vf) examples are: Air Vf = 1.000, Surface traces Vf = 0.53146, Buried Traces in er ~ 4.3: Vf = 0.48795
Dielectric Constant - (er) is used to calculate the velocity factor
Spatial Resolution (cm) = Max DUT Length(m) / Number of Points
Response Resolution (cm) = Step Rise Time(ps) * Dielectric Const * Speed of Light
IF Bandwidth - Narrower (smaller) IF bandwidths lower the noise floor so that low-level signals can be viewed, but slows the measurement time.
Power - Sets the signal level of the appropriate source. Power can be entered in dBm or in Volts (peak-to-peak) into a 50 ohm load.
Averaging - Each data point of consecutively swept traces is mathematically averaged until the total number of sweeps is equal to the averaging factor. This effectively lowers the noise floor, but also slows the measurement time.
Max DUT Length(m) = Time Base * Dielectric Const *Speed of Light
Stepped - Measures data while the source steps from point to point.
Swept - Measures data while the source sweeps linearly and continuously across the frequency range.
Linear Frequency Sets a linear frequency sweep that is displayed on a standard grid with ten equal horizontal divisions.
Log Frequency (Frequency domain ONLY) The source is stepped in logarithmic increments and the data is displayed on a logarithmic x-axis. This is usually slower than a linear sweep with the same number of points.
Log sweep is selected automatically when you load a Cal Set that was measured in log sweep.
You can set a User Preference to default to Log Sweep for all Frequency domain measurements.
Setup HOT S22 - Click to start the Hot S22 dialog box.
These selections are best made in the specified order.
This dialog assumes that ALL DUT ports shown are to be calibrated. If necessary, modify the DUT configuration by restarting the Cal Wizard.
1. Select Calibration Type
A different calibration type can be performed on each test port. Learn about these cal types: SOLT, TRL/LRM, ECal.
2. Select DUT Connector Type: (not the test port or adapter connector type).
Edit Connector List Filter the number and types of Cal Kits that appear in the Connector Type list. Learn more.
Set Probe Config Launches the Create Probe Cal Kit dialog (separate topic).
3. Select Cal Kit:
These are the Cal Kits that are in the PNA that match the specified connector type. To use Cal Kits that you have previously created using PLTS:
4. Click buttons next to each port...
Settings 1,2, and 3 above are applied to each port button, or click Apply to All Ports. When all ports have settings applied, the Next> button becomes available.
5. Modify 'Thru'... <Optional> Click to start the Modify Thru dialog.
6. Select a Cal Step Grouping <Optional> Select a Cal Step Grouping to use with the current calibration. <none> (default setting) will prompt for each cal standard connection. Learn all about Cal Step Grouping.
Create / Edit Groups Click to start the Create / Edit Cal Step Groups dialog.
To show this dialog, click Edit List on the Define Calibration Settings dialog.
This dialog has two purposes:
Choose Connectors and Groups of connectors to show in the Connector Type field of the Define Calibration Settings dialog. Select connector types for your DUTs. Once selected, these settings remain until you change them.
Connectors Check the connectors to show in the Connector Type field of the Define Calibration Settings dialog.
Groups Check Connector Groups that you have created to show in the Connector Type field of the Define Calibration Settings dialog.
To add a new group:
To modify a group, select the group and make the required changes. Then click Save Group.
To delete a group, select the group from the Groups area, then click Delete Group.
To see this dialog, click Edit Groups on the Define Calibration Settings dialog.
Group Two or more calibration steps that are configured to be performed with one calibration prompt. For example, a group named ‘Open’ could be configured to measure the open standards for all ports in a single step. The cal prompt would read something like: 'Connect Open standards to all ports'. When Measure is pressed, the Open standards are measured for all ports.
Grouping A collection of Groups that match a specific calibration setup. For example, a TRL calibration may use a grouping that contains three Groups named: ‘THRU’, ‘OpenReflect’, and ‘Line1’. This grouping may be defined and saved for subsequent calibrations that contain the same connector type, cal kit, and Thru methods.
Create / Edit Groupings
Select Choose a grouping to edit. The groupings that are listed all match the Connector Type, Cal Kit, and Thru methods of the current calibration.
New Click to create a new grouping. A dialog box appears which allows you to type a name for the new grouping.
Delete Click to delete the selected grouping.
Save Click to save the changes that you just made to the selected grouping. This includes all changes that are made to individual groups in the grouping collection.
Add a new group Enter a name for the new group, then click Add.
Select a Group to Modify Lists the names of existing groups in the selected Grouping. The order in which the groups appear is the order in which the Cal Steps will be performed.
Move Up / Down /Delete Use buttons to change the order in which the Cal Steps will be performed.
Group Description Type a description that will appear as a prompt when calibrating.
Group Picture Click Browse, then navigate to a picture that will appear as an aid when the calibration step is selected.
Note: To add a picture for each cal step (without grouping) use only ONE step for each group.
Filter Check the standard connection prompts to appear in the Available Cal Steps area.
Available Cal Steps > Cal Steps in Group
During the calibration, all of the connection steps that are listed in the Cal Steps in Group column will be measured, in order, with one prompt when the group is selected.
Click > to move individual prompts from the Available Cal Steps to the Cal Steps in Group to create the group of connections.
Click >> to move all prompts from the Available Cal Steps to the Cal Steps in Group column.
Close Closes dialog without saving changes. Click Save at the top of dialog to save all changes to the Groups and Grouping BEFORE closing.
Modify Thru dialog
To see this dialog, click Modify Thrus on the Define Calibration Settings dialog.
Thru #n Lists the proposed Thru connections to be made during the calibration process. You can change these Thru connections to better suit your test setup. Additional Thru connections can be selected for higher accuracy.
Add Thru Click to add a Thru connection.
Remove Thru Select a Thru by clicking the "1st Port / 2nd Port" field or the Thru Cal Method. Then click "Remove Thru". This selection is NOT available if the selected Thru is required for the calibration.
1st Port / 2nd Port (Red Box) Click to select the two ports to be included in the Thru connection. The order of the port numbers is not critical.
Thru Cal Method (Blue box) Lists the available Thru Cal methods for the specified port pairs.
Individual Thru Methods Check to allow separate Thru Cal Methods for each port. Clear to have the same Thru Cal Method on all ports. This feature requires PNA Rev. A.06.20 or higher.
The following selections appear on this dialog when all Thru Cal methods are Defined Thru.
Use QSOLT Check to perform QSOLT calibration on ALL ports.
Select Reference Port Select the port to which reflection cal standards will be connected.
Note: The picture that appears to the right of the Cal steps in the above image is added in the Cal Step Grouping feature. Pictures can be added without grouping Cal Steps.
Click buttons to measure standards
Shows the remaining steps to complete the calibration. As each standard is measured, the first number decrements.
Enable Refresh Cal
Check to save the measurements of the cal standards to a separate file. By doing this, individual steps can be remeasured after the Cal Set has been saved. This will cause large files to be saved to your PC. Learn more about Refresh Cal.
Cal Steps in List View
Check to cause the calibration steps to show the prompt next to the button.
Reflection Standards List:
Shows all reflection standards and ports required for calibration.
ECal, Thru, Line List
Shows all Thru connections that were specified for calibration.
< Back Return to the Calibration Kit dialog
Next > Becomes available when all standards are measured.
1. Enter Cal Set Name Type the name of the new Cal Set for the calibration that was just performed. This Cal Set can be later recalled to save time calibrating.
Note: Calibrations become 'stale' over time as hardware drifts. For highest accuracy, recalibrate the hardware every several days.
When Refresh Cal is enabled in the Calibrate Hardware dialog, then step 2 is visible.
2. Enter cal raw data file name: This is where the raw cal data is saved so that it can be later recalled and viewed using Load Error Terms dialog.
If performing a Mixed Mode Cal, the wizard continues at Differential Crosstalk Cal.
This dialog allows you to test the connection of the DUT before making a measurement. The following Measure DUT page makes the actual measurement.
Continuity Check helps to ensure that connections to the DUT are secure. Select the parameters that you want to check, and click Criteria to enter the Pass/Fail criteria for each parameter. These settings can be saved, and later recalled for use in subsequent measurements.
Reflection, Transmission, Customize Check each box to list the parameters that are available for testing to the specified criteria. Click each parameter (in the highlighted area above) to select for testing. The BOLD parameters are selected.
Pass/Fail indicator (Green box in red ring above)
Criteria Click to launch the Continuity Check Criteria dialog.
Click Next> when the DUT is connected to your satisfaction.
This dialog sets the Pass/Fail criteria for the Continuity Check.
Select Choose an existing criteria. If only 'default' exists, click New to create new criteria settings.
New Click to launch the Input New Name dialog. Type a name for the new criteria settings. The name of the settings in the above image is "Reflection".
Delete Removes the selected Criteria settings.
Rename Allows you to rename the selected Criteria through the Input New Name dialog.
Save Saves the current settings to the selected Criteria.
OK Close the dialog.
Select the Analysis View type that will be used to display data. This can be changed at any time. Learn how.
Show template views only When checked, only template views are displayed. When cleared, both templates and standard Analysis Views are displayed. Learn about a specific Analysis View.
Create New Create a new template. Learn more.
Added new Measure DUT dialog/IF Bandwidth setting
Added template views
Added new wizard
Added Edit/Group connectors