Application Notes

The following links require an Internet connection.

Note: Check out the multimedia VNA Demo presentations, including 'Network Analyzer Basics'.


AN1287-11 Specifying Calibration Standards and Kits for Keysight Vector Network Analyzers (5989-4840EN)

PN8510-8A TRL Calibration for Non-Coaxial Measurements (5091-3645E)

Calibrating Standards for In-Fixture Device Characterization (White Paper) (5989-3245EN)

Electronic vs. Mechanical Calibration kits: Calibration methods and accuracy (White Paper) (5988-9477EN)

On-Wafer Calibration Using a 4-port, 20 GHz PNA-L Network Analyzer (N5230A Option 240/245) (5989-2287EN)


Keysight Electronic vs. Mechanical Calibration Kits: Calibration Methods and Accuracy (5988-9477EN)

User Characterization: Electronic Calibration Feature Allows Users to Customize to Specific Needs (5988-9478EN)

Embedding / De-embedding

De-embedding and Embedding S-Parameter Networks Using a Vector Network Analyzer (5980-2784EN)

Amplifier Measurements

AN1408-7 Amplifier Linear and Gain Measurements (5988-8644EN)

AN1408-8 Amplifier Swept-Harmonic Measurements (5988-9473EN)

AN1408-9 Amplifier and CW Swept Intermodulation-Distortion Measurements (5988-9474EN)

AN1408-10 High-power measurements using the PNA (5989-1349EN)

AN1408-16 Power-Added Efficiency (PAE) 5989-7293EN

AN1408-17 Making Accurate IMD Measurements with the PNA-X Network Analyzer (5989-7265EN)

AN1408-19 High Power Amplifier Measurements Using NVNA

Antenna Measurements

Triggering PNA Microwave Network Analyzers for Antenna Measurements (5988-9518EN)

New Network Analyzer Methodologies in Antenna/RCS Measurements (5989-1937EN)

Pulsed Antenna Measurements Using PNA Network Analyzers (5989-0221EN)

Antenna and RCS Configurations (White Paper) (5989-0220EN)

Radar Measurements (Application Note) (5989-7575EN)

Balanced Measurements (Although the following refer to the ENA, they are also relevant to the PNA.)

On-wafer Balanced Component Measurement with the Cascade Microtech Probing System (5988-5886EN)

Network De-embedding/Embedding and Balanced Measurement (5988-4923EN)

Backplane Differential Channel Microprobe Characterization in Time and Frequency Domains (White Paper) (5989-3248EN)

Mixer Measurements

AN1408-1 Mixer Transmission Measurements Using the Frequency Conversion Application (5988-8642EN)

AN1408-2 Mixer Conversion-Loss and Group Delay Measurement Techniques and Comparisons (5988-9619EN)

AN1408-3 Improving Measurement and Calibration Accuracy Using the Frequency Converter Application (5988-9642EN)

AN1408-18 Measuring Group Delay of Frequency Converters with Embedded Local Oscillators (5989-7385EN)

Comparison of Mixer Characterization using New Vector Characterization Techniques (5988-7827EN)

Novel Method for Vector Mixer Characterization and Mixer Test System Vector Error Correction (5988-7826EN)

Measuring Absolute Group Delay of Multistage Converters Using PNA Microwave Network Analyzers (5989-0219EN)

Pulsed Measurements

AN1408-11 Accurate Pulsed Measurements (5989-0563EN)

AN1408-12 Pulsed-RF S-Parameter Measurements Using Wideband and Narrowband Detection

AN1408-21 Active-Device Characterization in Pulsed Operation Using the PNA-x (5990-7781EN)

Pulsed Antenna Measurements Using PNA Network Analyzers (5989-0221EN)

Materials Measurements

Basics of Measuring the Dielectric Properties of Materials (5989-2589EN)

Split Post Dielectric Resonators for Dielectric Measurements of Substrates (5989-5384EN)

Other Measurements

AN1287-12 Time Domain Analysis Using a Network Analyzer (5989-5723EN)

AN1408-14 Using the PNA Series to Analyze Lightwave Components (5989-3385EN)

AN1408-15 Using the PNA for Banded Millimeter-Wave Measurements (5989-4098EN)

AN1408-19 High Power Amplifier Measurements Using NVNA (5990-5039EN)

AN1408-20 High-Accuracy Noise Figure Measurements Using the PNA-X

MM-Wave Network Analyzers: Analysis of Cable Length on VNA System Performance (5989-1941EN)

Ultra-Low Impedance Measurements Using 2-Port Measurements (White Paper) (5989-5935EN)


Utilizing TDR and VNA Data to Develop 4-port Frequency Dependent Models (White Paper) (5989-0638EN)

Advanced Measurements and Modeling of Differential Devices (White Paper) (5989-4518EN)


AN 1408-13 Introduction to Application Development using the PNA (5980-2666EN)

Connectivity Advances for Component Manufacturers (5980-2782EN)

The 'Need for Speed' in Component Manufacturing Test (5980-2783EN)