Math may be performed on traces that are displayed within a plot. For example, you may divide the data of one trace by the data of a second trace to derive the vectorial difference.
The following two methods can be used to perform Trace Math:
Create and apply a Math Equation to a displayed plot or trace.
Perform Quick Math on a displayed trace.
Math equations can be saved and applied to templates. However, templates can use math equations that include data ONLY from the same file, such as “1:S11 / 1:S22”. Equations from multiple data files (such as “1:S11 / 2:S11”) are NOT supported in templates.
Other Analysis Tools and Utilities Topics
Click Tools, then Math, then Design
Enter an equation using the Data, Key Pad, and Functions buttons.
When finished, type a new Equation Name or select an existing Equation Name to overwrite.
Click Save Equation. The equation is now resident in PLTS memory. It can now be Applied to plots of the same data analysis type.
Optional: click Save Advanced to save the equation to a *.DUT file or a *.fml file on your PC. Learn more.
Important Note: Use this dialog to create, load, and save math equations. When you Save or Load an equation, it becomes resident in PLTS memory. You can then Apply that equation to a plot of the same Data Analysis type. The equation remains resident in memory until PLTS is closed or the equation is deleted. Beginning with PLTS 4.5, you can Save and then Recall a math equation with a *.DUT file or an equation (*.fml) file. Learn how to Add an Equation trace to a plot. 
DUT File  Choose an open data file to include in the math operation. Data from up to three different files may be used in an equation. Domain  Choose the data to display and include in the math operation. Select from Frequency Domain (singleended and balanced) and Time Domain (singleended and differential). Data  Click a parameter and it is copied to the cursor location in the equation. Use the search filter text box to do a quick search of the data list. Equation  Build the equation using Data, Functions, Operators, Variables, and the Key Pad. Key Pad  Used to build the equation. It allows you to enter numeric entries and operators. New Wildcard  When clicked, replaces the DUT designators in the formula with '?'. When the equation is applied, the wildcard is replaced with the number of the first open DUT file with the matching parameter. Using the wildcard will usually avoid the need to resolve ambiguity in a formula. Use a wildcard ONLY when you know which parameters will be matched. Check  When the equation is complete, click to check the syntax of the equation. Red text appears when the equation has an error (as in the above image). No red text means that the equation is valid. Equation Name  Allows you to enter a name to save the equation and recall it for future use. Output Unit  Set the output units to Ohms or No unit. The units are applicable for PLTS as well as thirdparty Matlab/Python equations. If adding the impedance equation to a new plot, Z is displayed by default. If adding the impedance equation to an existing plot for data sharing, the plot format must be related to impedance. Save (Equation) Saves the valid math equation into PLTS memory. NOTE: This does NOT save the equation to disk. The following two buttons replace each other depending on the current 'pin' state. Pin to Equations Pane The current (unpinned) equation is pinned to the Equations Pane. Unpin from Equations Pane The current (pinned) equation is unpinned from the Equations Pane. Save Advanced Launches the Save Equations dialog, which allows you to save the equation to a *.DUT file or a *.fml (equation) file. Load Launches a Open dialog. Navigate and select a *.fml (equation) file to load. After opening the file, select the file using equation Name. Close Closes the dialog. Variables  Beginning with PLTS 2020, the port impedances Z1, Z2, ...Zn have been added as variables and they do not have to be 50 ohms. The port impedance variables are available for both frequencydomain and timedomain equations. See AlsoFunctions  Used to build the equation. It allows you to enter math symbols and delimiters as well as some frequency domain formats.

The following dialog is launched by clicking Save Advanced on the Create Equation and Apply Equation dialogs.
The equations that are in PLTS memory are listed. Check the equations to be saved, then click either Save in Active DUT file, or Export to Equation File. Check All Selects all displayed equations. Clear All Unchecks all checked equations. Save in Active DUT file When the DUT file is loaded, the equation is also recalled into PLTS memory. Export to Equation File This file can be recalled and used with any active DUT file. 
Once math equations have been created and saved (learn how), they may be applied ONLY to the same Data Analysis type for all opened data files. For example, a Singleended Frequency domain equation can be applied ONLY to a Singleended Frequency domain plot. Otherwise, the Apply menu selection is not available.
Learn how to Add an Equation trace to a plot.
Click Tools, then Math, then Apply
Select an equation to apply to the active trace.
Click Apply to Trace
Important: Only the equations that were created using the same Data Analysis type as is the currentlyactive trace appear in the dialog and can be applied. For example, if MyNewEquation was created in Time Domain (Singleended), then that equation appears ONLY when the active trace is Time Domain (Singleended). The first three equations that appear (Upper Std Dev, Mean, Lower Std Dev) are standard PLTS Statistical Equations. Learn more. Apply to Trace Adds a new math trace to the active plot. Apply to Text Box Adds equation results to the active plot. After selecting an equation and clicking the Apply to Text Box button, the equation results are displayed on the plot. An example is shown below: Rightclick on the text box to edit the annotation: Remove Trace Removes the math trace from the plot. Remove Text Box Deletes equation results from the active plot. Delete Deletes the selected equation from PLTS memory. The following two buttons replace each other depending on the current 'pin' state. Pin to Equations Pane The selected (unpinned) equation is pinned to the Equations Pane. Unpin ALL from Equations Pane Unpins all equations from the Equations Pane. Save Advanced Starts the Save Equations dialog. Import Recalls equations that are stored in a *.fml file. Exit Closes the dialog box. 
When applying an equation, this dialog appears when the files to which the equation refers is ambiguous. This occurs because the files that are open may NOT be the same files that were open when the equation was created. The files are identified by the numeric prefix before each term and each open file. For example (from the above dialog image): with 1:S11, the '1:' file MAY NOT be the same '1:' file that was open when the equation was created. Please confirm the '1:' file to use by using the following procedure:
When applying this equation during the current PLTS session, always resolve ambiguities using the current active file. Check this box to always use the ACTIVE (selected) file in the equation. Leave cleared to manually resolve ambiguities. Cancel Do NOT apply this equation. Other equations that may be loading will be applied or prompt for resolution.

You can use Quick Math to perform simple math operations on two traces in the same plot. The resultant trace is displayed on the plot.
With MORE THAN ONE data trace displayed on the active plot, click the right mouse button with the cursor over the plot. Then click Quick Math.
In the Left Operand field, select a trace on which math is to be performed.
In the Operator field, select an operation (+ add,  subtract, * multiply, / divide).
In the Right Operand field, select a second trace on which math is to be performed.
Click Result (=) to add a new math trace to the active plot.
Rightclick the plot, then Remove All Quick Math to remove the math trace.
Beginning with PLTS Release 4.2, data can be exported with Math applied. Learn more.
Last Modified:
11Nov2019 
Added data search filter text box and output unit functions to Create Equation dialog descriptions 
7Jan2013 
Added new functions (2013) 
7Nov2011 
Edited Apply and Quick math for 2012 
1Mar2011 
Updated for 2011 
3Apr2008 
Added Save math equations 